Perspective and Foreshortening
Perspective and foreshortening can be used for many applications, including elongating legs, making a subject appear larger in frame, and more. Basically, the closer an object is to the lens, the larger it will appear. Likewise, distance will diminish a subject’s size.
You can also place more distance between the subject and the lens to reduce the effect. For example, standing close to a staggered group of people will exaggerate the size difference between the subjects closer to the camera compared to those standing farther away. If you were to stand farther back, however, and use a telephoto lens to compress the image, the distance between each of the subjects in the staggered group would be less significant, and therefore the effects of perspective and foreshortening would be diminished.